What Can We Learn About Health From Studying Hunter-Gatherers?

hunter-gathererThose who’ve been following my blog for some time know that my writing is always based on an evolutionary perspective on human health. But why do I think it’s so important to learn more about the ancestral environment and lifestyle and the selective pressures and natural selection that made our species what it is today? The evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky published in 1973 an essay titled “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”, and I truly believe that this idea also applies to all other aspects of life. Without looking at human life in an evolutionary perspective, we’re grasping in the dark when trying to determine what to eat, how to exercise, and in general – how to live our lives in the best way possible. While we don’t have to emulate the lifestyle of hunter-gatherer populations or non-westernized people, we can learn a lot by simply studying the way humans have lived for millions of years. If we learn more about the ancestral natural environment in which our genome was forged, we can create a framework for understanding the gene-environment mismatch we’re now facing in the modern world. In this post I’m going to bring together some of the knowledge we have about hunter-gatherer tribes and non-westernized people, and summarize what we know into a few primary takeaways.

The ancestral natural environment

The paleolithic age is a prehistoric era of human history that stretches from the earliest known use of stone tools about 2.6 million years ago, up until about 10000 years ago. During this time, humans lived as hunter-gatherers that subsided on wild animals and plants. While we don’t have data to really say for sure, it’s generally believed that the paleolithic man was healthy and fit and virtually free from diseases that are running rampant in the modern world. While the average lifespan was shorter than it is today, this low life expectancy is thought to result from high infant mortality, infectious disease, warfare, accidental deaths, etc.

And this is where we get to the root of the paleo philosophy. While there wasn’t one universal prehistoric lifestyle, environment, or diet, it’s generally accepted that the paleolithic way of life is characterized by regular sun exposure, moderate-high amounts of physical activity, “microbial exposures”, and a high-quality ancestral diet composed of wild foods – all things that set you up for a healthy and fit body. The basic idea behind the paleo philosophy is that the ancestral environment is the default/natural human environment and that the ancestral lifestyle promotes a normal phenotype.

It’s this ancestral natural environment that forged both our human genome and the microbiome, but what we’re now learning is that although our human genome changes slowly, the human microbiome adapts rapidly to changes in environment and lifestyle. In many ways, this can be thought of us a hard-wired mechanism that allowed the human species to rapidly adapt to new environments. This is especially relevant in terms of nutrition, as the gut microbiome can adapt to break down a wide range of food ingredients. This is one of the reasons why I’m not convinced that eating a paleolithic diet is necessary to optimize health and well-being. There’s no doubt that basing your diet around an ancestral dietary template is a good idea, but there’s little evidence to suggest that all of the foods introduced after the agricultural revolution are bad for you.

However, it’s no doubt that we would benefit greatly from returning to our roots by getting more sun exposure, being more physically active, getting dirty once in a while, and in general – living more like our paleolithic ancestors (to the extent that is possible and practical in the modern world).

Hunter-gatherer tribes and traditional non-westernized populations are healthy and fit

But how do we know that this ancestral lifestyle optimizes gene expression? The paleolithic way of life certainly involves many of the factors that are known to promote good health, but our knowledge about the paleolithic man is too limited to make firm conclusions about their health. Here’s where we have to turn our attention towards more contemporary times. Humans slowly started to settle down and domesticate plants and animals about 10000 years ago, and most people now live in industrialized settings. But not everyone has abandoned the old ways of doing things. Some populations are still virtually unaffected by the western lifestyle, and some have even kept their ancestral lifestyle up until this day. Most of these indigenous tribes are slowly disappearing, but their health and lifestyle have been documented by researchers over the last centuries – making it possible to draw more accurate conclusions than we can by simply looking at archeological records from thousands of years ago.

Perhaps the most striking thing these studies show is that pretty much all hunter-gatherer tribes are virtually free from the so-called diseases of civilization (1,2). To a certain extent, these findings also apply to semi-nomadic people, traditional horticulturists, and other populations that have kept most aspects of their traditional lifestyle (3,4). Let’s take a look at some of these traditional populations.

Non-westernized populations that have been studied in modern times

The Hadza Bushmen

Who: One of the last true hunter-gatherer communities in Africa. Only about 200-300 Hadza still live as hunter-gatherers. “The Hadza live in small mobile camps with fluid membership, usually comprising a core group of ~30 people, and target native wild foods, both hunted and foraged, for the bulk of their subsistence. While the Hadza are a modern human population, they live in a key geographic region for studies of human evolution and target resources similar to those exploited by our hominin ancestors. The Hadza lifestyle therefore is thought to most closely resemble that of Paleolithic humans(5).
Health: Low incidence of modern diseases
Diet: Meat, honey, baobab, berries, and tubers. Seasonal availability determines macronutrient intake. Men eat more meat and honey, and women eat more plant food.
Lifestyle: Plenty of sun exposure, low-moderate levels of physical activity, and plenty of microbial exposures (e.g., dirt)
More information: 6,7,8
Image source (Photographer: Martin Schoeller)

The Kitavans on the Island of Kitava (Horticulturalists)

Studied in: 1989 by Staffan Lindeberg et al.
Who: One of the last populations on Earth with dietary habits matching that of our prehistoric ancestors.
Where: The island of Kitava, one of the Trobriand Islands in Papua New Guinea’s archipelago
Health: No indications of stroke, acne vulgaris, overweight, diabetes, dementia, or congestive heart failure. Excellent blood pressure, etc.
Diet: High-carbohydrate ancestral diet (69% carbohydrate, 21% fat, and 10% protein) made up of root vegetables (yam, sweet potato, taro, tapioca), fruit (banana, papaya, pineapple, mango, guava, water melon, pumpkin), vegetables, fish, and coconuts.
Lifestyle: Moderate amounts of physical activity, regular sun exposure, some smoking, and little access to modern hygiene and pharmaceuticals.
More information: 9
Image source

The Inuit

Who: A group of culturally similar indigenous peoples.
Where: The Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and the United States
Health: Virtually free from chronic disease when living as hunter-gatherers. The health of modern Inuit has quickly deteriorated as they’ve started adopting the western dietary pattern.
Diet: The traditional diet of the Inuit consists primarily of seafood, land mammals, and birds. There’s some controversy regarding the composition of the Inuit diet, but it’s generally accepted that the traditional diet is high in fat (up to 75%) and low in carbohydrate.  The fact that the Inuit stay so healthy on this type of “extreme” diet is sometimes referred to as the Inuit Paradox.
More information: 10,11,12,13
Image source

The Maasai (Pastoralists)

Who: A Nilotic ethnic group of semi-nomadic people.
Where: Southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.
Health: Low incidence of diseases of civilization. Maasai have slowly adopted aspects of the western lifestyle, and as a result, their health has deteriorated.
Diet: Some controversy, but most reports suggest that the traditional diet of the Maasai is primarily composed of milk, meat, and blood.
Lifestyle: Moderate-high amounts of physical activity, regular sun exposure, and little access to modern hygiene and pharmaceuticals.
More information: 14,15
Image source

What are the primary takeaways from the studies of hunter-gatherer populations and non-westernized people?

  • The ancestral environment could be classified as the default/natural human habitat. We can adapt to a wide spctrum of environments and lifestyles, but when we diverge too far away from the ancestral natural environment, our health declines.
  • The default state of Homo sapiens is one of good health and protection from diseases of civilization.
  • The gene-environment mismatch we’re now facing in the modern industralized world is the primary cause of diseases of civilization.
  • Although our human genome changes slowly, the human microbiome adapts rapidly to changes in environment and lifestyle. This is most relevant in terms of diet.
  • Humans can be lean and healthy on a wide spectrum of diets.
  • Common characteristics of a healthy lifestyle: Good nutrition, adequate sun exposure, acute stress (not chronic),  low exposure to pollutants, regular physical activity, plenty of time spent outdoors, good sleep, and “microbial exposures”.

In the end I want to emphasise that although I believe we can learn a lot by studying hunter-gatherer populations and non-westernized people, I’m by no means suggesting that we should abandon all aspects of our modern lifestyle and return to the wild (Unless that’s something you want off course). The ancestral way of life can often be harsh and unforgiving, and most people are probably going to prefer the comfortable modern environment. However, by combining the best from the ancestral lifestyle (e.g., dietary practises, sun exposure, physical activity) with the things we cherish about the modern life, we can get many of the same health benefits as our prehistoric ancestors while not having to sacrifice the assistance of modern technology.


  1. Wow, as usual. I think it would be a great experiment to send a couple of people to each tribe to live for 6 months, then give them a complete medical workup, including a microbe panel and see how their health has, hopefully, improved.

    • Definitely! One of the founders of the human food project is actually doing that exact thing this year. He’s spending several months with the Hadza. Also, other reports show that westerners who go and live with hunter-gatherer tribes experience dramatic health improvements.

      • Take me! Take me! I can pick up sticks and stir a pot:)

        Weston A. Price gave up his dental practice and studied similar native populations, especially in the island,s and found mostly perfect teeth, jaw alignments and excellent health even though they never saw a toothbrush. I’m sure you’re aware of his studies.

  2. HI ERIK….
    you are right,all you say is convincing,but in modern life, especially in this moment, is really hard to fight chronic stress

  3. Mate, love this post. You really out did yourself this time. Never put much thought in this till now.

    • You’re not alone Shane. Sadly, this information hasn’t really spread outside of the ancestral health community. However, the science is very conclusive, chronic disease – in the way we see it in today’s society – is not a natural part of human life.

  4. What is your take on resistant starch? This seems to be the latest trend, what with Tom’s Fat Head Blog running up half a dozen articles on it with people asking the most bizarre things about how to “go about it.” Most people don’t realize they’re eating it when they heat up leftovers carbs. Since our modern life has decimated our ancestral gut bugs, people are thinking this is the way to…how can I say it….”restock” them.

    • I’ve been following the resistant starch “craziness” since it began last year. Actually just listened to a podcast with Tom Naughton on resistant starch today. Might do a post on it in the future. In general, getting more RS and other types of fermentable substrates into the diet is important for pretty much everyone.

      • I agree but would rather do it through food than prepared probiotics.

        In Tom’s 3 part RS series, they were discussing probiotics and he mentioned he takes soil based organisms:

        Tom Naughton says:
        May 1, 2014 at 1:07 pm
        I haven’t looked into that specifically. I went with the soil-based probiotics because (from what I understand) those are different strains of bacteria.

        Jean Bush says:
        May 1, 2014 at 2:51 pm
        I did a little research after your reply to me and found this article. After looking it over, perhaps you would like to post it. The research seems excellent.

        Too many people see info on a site and rush right out to try it without doing proper research. This article’s comment on the fact that too many people may not be ready for soil based probs was especially interesting.


        Frankly, Eirik, I wouldn’t trust them. He never responded, the little snot:))
        I think I’ll just stick with the natural ferments.

        Thanks for putting up with my endless babbling. You poor thing.


  1. What Can We Learn About Health From Studying … – Organic Fitness | Test Blogs on Mande Pub says:

    […] The rest is here: What Can We Learn About Health From Studying … – Organic Fitness […]

  2. […] food should have a gut community that is thoroughly adapted to that type of diet. Just imagine the difference between a native Eskimo eating a high-fat, low carbohydrate diet made up primarily of seafood and […]

  3. […] we compare the two most extreme ends of the spectrum, a typical hunter-gather population (e.g., Native Inuits living a traditional lifestyle, no obesity) and a U.S. population (e.g., urban […]

  4. […] often forget that we’re just part of a bigger ecosystem.  Just like we can learn a lot from studying contemporary humans who live as hunter-gatherers, insights into the life of wild animals, which live in a habitat that closely resembles the […]

  5. […] several decades. In combination with the studies showing that these conditions are/were virtually unheard of in hunter-gatherer populations and many non-westernized populations, this suggests to me that epigenetic processes are more […]

  6. […] organ meats have been a valued and important part of the human diet. This is especially true for hunter-gatherers and isolated traditional populations, where organs and the fattest parts of the animals were highly […]

  7. […] human societies. We know that some non-westernized populations, such as The Maasai and The Inuit, were extremely healthy on a high-fat diet, while other indigenous people, such as The Kitavans on the Island of Kitava and The New Guinea […]

  8. […] habitats on one of the Trobriand Islands in Papua New Guinea’s archipelago (which I covered here). Dr. Lindeberg is listed with 86 papers in PubMed and has also published the book “Food and […]

  9. […] Hadza diet. This might sound like a nightmare from a nutritional standpoint, but the fact is that Hadza hunter-gatherers are lean, fit, and virtually free from diseases of civilization. How can this be? Firstly, as I’ve previously talked about, it’s definitely possible […]

  10. […] human health in that area quickly declines. This response is especially apparant when we look at hunter-gatherers and isolated non-westernized people, who experience a dramatic decline in health when they start […]

  11. […] As I’ve previously mentioned many times on the blog, if we actually look at the diet of hunter-gatherers (both contemporary and prehistoric), it becomes clear that there isn’t one universal ancestral diet. As one would expect, food availability, macronutrient ratio, and plant-animal subsistence ratio depend on season, climate, location, etc, and while some hunter-gatherer populations thrive/thrived on diets rich in tubers, fruits, and vegetables, oth…. […]

  12. […] leanness, but definitely within the normal BMI range. This notion is supported by studies of hunter-gatherers and isolated non-westernized populations, which show that overweight is virtually unheard of in […]

  13. […] such as heart disease, acne vulgaris, obesity, and type-2 diabetes, which are rare or unknown among hunter-gatherers (1,4). The question that often comes up in debates of paleo is: How much adaptation has occured? […]

  14. […] that have maintained excellent health on starch-heavy diets. Three well-known examples are the Kitavans on the Island of Kitava, the New Guinea highland tribe at Tukisenta (which has one of the highest documented carbohydrate […]

  15. […] type-2 diabetes – that now affect a growing part of the population in the modern world are virtually absent in hunter-gatherer populations and other traditional, non-westernized cultures. These differences in disease burden are primarily […]

  16. […] human societies. We know that some non-westernized populations, such as The Maasai and The Inuit, were extremely healthy on a high-fat diet, while other indigenous people, such as The Kitavans on the Island of Kitava and The New Guinea […]

  17. […] theories, ancestral health concepts, and ethnographic research pertaining to the health of hunter-gatherers and traditional people were to be incorporated into medical training and health care, our medical system as a whole would […]

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